Let's Get Honest! Absolutely Uncommon Analysis of Family & Conciliation Courts' Operations, Practices, & History

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Credentialing and Schooling Psychologists (speaking of MN and the Grazzini-Rucki case)

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[Section on Schools of Professional Psychology likely to be moved to a separate post.  It was added post-publication anyhow.. Until then, the post is about 11,000 words.  After it’s removed, closer to 8,000 words //LGH]

Fascinating (I think!) information on the matter of private, for-profit education as a major, flourishing form of investment, and the Minnesota School of Professional Psychology at Argosy University as part of this larger trend.

I have sustained an ongoing interest in the “Schools of Professional Psychology” ever since learning who was pushing for them in the late 1960s, in my state, and why.  (“Psychologists need doctorates too if they’re going to continue getting some R.E.S.P.E.C.T. — and proper income…ideally, like doctors get….” There seems to be a perpetual chip on the shoulder of too many in the field.. a professional trait…).  There seem parallels between the Argosy University situation and the Alliant International University (with California campuses, and having absorbed the California School of Professional Psychology, while also hosting a “non-entity” called “IVAT” (Institute on Violence, Abuse and Trauma) associated with Robert Geffner’s “FVSAI” (Family Violence and Sexual Assault Institute, a small nonprofit with Texas jurisdiction & California address).


Schools of Professional Psychology tend to prepare people as marriage/family therapists and custody evaluators, among other future career paths.  This gets interesting when the schools come in different religious types.  For example, there’s the Christian/religious/theological style:

Since 1965:  Fuller Seminary: School of Psychology:

Pioneering Integration and Excellence in Teaching, Training, and Research

Since 1965, Fuller’s School of Psychology has been creating a pioneer program integrating evangelical Christian faith and psychology. By placing strong theological study in the heart of psychology, you will become clinical psychologists, marriage and family therapists, and educators who are prepared to serve with integrated professionalism and practice.

The “History” page gives the inspiration and original financial backing information:

In 1961, psychologist John G. Finch delivered a series of lectures at Fuller Seminary on the theological and psychological dimensions of humankind. The vision he articulated, one that integrated the Christian faith with the field of psychology, sparked the idea for a School of Psychology at Fuller. With generous financial support from C. Davis and Annette Weyerhaeuser, further study and planning followed and, in 1964, the opening of the Pasadena Community Counseling Center initiated the first phase of the new program
(This being the 1960s, a class photo shows next, with rows of men in suits and ONE woman):

John G. Finch in the 1980s and again in the 1990s was accused of sexual improprieties with his clients, some of them married women.  Seattle Times (4/27/1992, “Communities”) article described in detail, including some incidents that began, it was claimed, as early as 1965 — about the time he was “inspiring” Fuller to get the School of Psychology started.  (Is this how some therapists who groom patients for sex get their stables of partners established? Is it why they went into the field? With the religious element, that’s not just professional, but professional and spiritual abuse.  “Caveat emptor.”

A (married) woman claimed to have met him at a Christian camp.  Separately (not in this article), a married man was in therapy with Finch while Finch, unknown to him, was having sex with the man’s wife, which she confessed to years later, but Finch, naturally, deflected accusations of having a romantic relationship with his patient’s wife.  The man then sued as “John Doe” for malpractice and outrage…

If the goal behind raising up more Christian psychologists and marriage therapists is indeed evangelizing and transforming the world through faith, perhaps a better means might be for the flocks of sheep to to quit the passive, “see-nothing-do-nothing” sheeplike behavior and remember they are human beings — and hold leadership accountable.  For leadership, we’d rather see a sermon than hear one,  and more might be open to the sermons if they weren’t seeing this type of behavior coming from the sermonizers.  In this case, it was primarily the women who continued reporting over the years and came forward, as I recall.

A prominent Pierce County psychologist has been charged by the state with violating his code of ethics by allegedly having sex with his clients, engaging in nude therapy and violating their confidences.

It is one of the most egregious cases ever taken to the board, say officials with the state Examining Board of Psychology, where the charges were filed last month. The board continues to receive complaints about the psychologist, who has been licensed in the state since 1965.

The charges, based on claims by six patients, say Gig Harbor therapist John Finch violated his code of ethics by having sex with clients, shared their private conversations with others and fostered their dependence on him.   Sex between patients and therapists is forbidden under state ethics law but is not a criminal offense. ….

Complaints were made against Finch 10 years ago, but were dropped by the state Department of Licensing – which at the time had jurisdiction over the licensing of psychologists – because the complainants were not deemed credible. But investigators remained suspicious.

“I believe Dr. Finch practices in a questionable and controversial manner,” said Ruth Palnick, who investigated the charges for the Department of Licensing in 1982, in documents filed at the time. “John Finch bears watching, but I really don’t feel we would get far with these witnesses.”

The psychology board has received 11 complaints against Finch, beginning in 1990, six of which are included in the statement of charges. They paint a portrait of a man who promoted himself as a Christian therapist and fostered such dependence by his patients that he persuaded them to remove their clothes and engage in sex with him.

It is only today that some of the women feel strong enough to talk about their experiences with Finch.

“The hardest thing is I’ve lived with this secret for 26 years, more than half of my life,” said Ineke Rouw, who met Finch in 1964 at a Bible conference in Bellingham. Active in a Christian church, Rouw began therapy with him soon thereafter and continued until 1987. She began to see Finch because of concerns about her inability to become pregnant.  [[And quit after confiding in another therapist….  He had sex with her while billing her for therapy, totaling from $20 – $30K over the years….Other lawsuits were filed, six women (“A through F”) came forward. At the time of “nude therapy” (sometimes involving sex with clients) he was ordained Methodist minister, founder of Fuller School of Psychology (it says) and married with children…  See rest of article.]]

 A husband even sued the man as “John Doe” for malpractice and outrage.  In this case, Finch had the man in therapy, while having sex with his wife (!!), who much later, confessed to having had sex with him during those times. Here’s part of it:

Supreme Court of Washington,En Banc.  John DOE, Respondent, v. John G. FINCH and John G. Finch, Ph.D., P.S., Petitioner.  No. 64131-5.    Decided: August 21, 1997:

Doe was in therapy with Dr. Finch from 1974 to 1980.   Much of Doe’s therapy focused on Doe’s failing marriage.  In 1976, Dr. Finch began a romantic and sexual relationship with Doe’s wife that lasted until at least 1981.   Doe felt jealousy toward Dr. Finch, and it seemed to Doe that his wife had a higher opinion of Dr. Finch than of Doe. Dr. Finch assured Doe that Dr. Finch’s relationship with Doe’s wife was strictly professional.

In December 1981, Doe wrote an angry letter to Dr. Finch, blaming Dr. Finch for the failure of Doe’s marriage, and making specific allegations of an inappropriate relationship between Dr. Finch and Doe’s wife.

What amazes me is that Fuller hasn’t meanwhile removed the reference from their school.

Another Christian School of Psychology in Southern California (Malibu) would be at Pepperdine, who also has programs (Straus Institute for Dispute Resolution, Boone (as in “Pat Boone”) Family Center) which graduate people who then go into the family law practice:  I have posted on it before on this blog in context of marriage/fatherhood grants promotion. Pepperdine’s  combines psychology and education.  The two fields are of course closely related:

Pepperdine University Graduate School of Education and Psychology…  (School of Education founded 1971, of Psychology, 1981)

Pepperdine University is a Christian university committed to the highest standards of academic excellence and Christian values, where students are strengthened for lives of purpose, service, and leadership.

Access an exceptional education at multiple campuses throughout Southern California, as well as online

Preamble    (from “Spiritual Formation and the Christian Mission” page)

The Graduate School of Education and Psychology (GSEP) at Pepperdine University fully supports the University’s Christian mission and promotes spiritual formation for the sake of serving the needs of others, and especially the needs of those Jesus called “the least of these” (Matthew 25:45).

In keeping with the holistic vision of faith/learning integration that Pepperdine has embraced for so many years – GSEP affirms all space as God’s space and all times as God’s time. For that reason, GSEP encourages its students, faculty, and staff to view their work as sacred work, regardless of where or when that work might be carried out. From a Christian perspective, a life of purpose inspires us to serve, and by serving, it shapes the way we lead.  [Diversity of religious views of students is emphasized; it’s hoped the time at Pepperdine will be “transformative”….]

24255 Pacific Coast Highway, Malibu, CA 90263

(Other Factoids:  Senior Admin (4), all men, all white.  Board of Directors has more variety (men and women, businesses (Northrup Grunman, Hughes Missile Group, VP of eHarmony…) and professionals (dentist, lawyer, doctor) and even a US District Judge for DC Court of Appeals).

Then, there are the Schools of Professional Psychology whose ties are definitely more humanistic or associated with “new-age” worldviews and practices (not that sexual or other abuse is necessarily any less likely to occur within their ranks…).

The Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology (for example), recently renamed “William James College,”  which I’m aware of because of AFCC former President? or Board Member, Robin Deutsch’ involvement in its Center of Excellence for Families and Children (or similarly named center) there — I also noted had ties to Saybrook University.

The Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology, now (as of May, 2015) named William James College, maintains its focus on experiential learning, and continues to have one of its “Centers of Excellence” to be run by a well-known (if you pay attention to this organization) Association of Family and Conciliation Courts (AFCC) Board Member/President (former or present, I don’t keep close track), i.e., Robin Deutsch, Ph.D. a.k.a. “Dr. Robin Deutsch.”  Her bio reads like a smorgasbord of AFCC-promoted policies, positions (alienation, high-conflict) and professions (parenting coordination) and acknowledges the connection at the bottom of the bio blurb:

Robin M. Deutsch, PhD, ABPP is the Director of the Center of Excellence for Children, Families and the Law at William James College. Formerly an Associate Clinical Professor of Psychology at Harvard Medical School, she practices as a custody evaluator, mediator, parent coordinator, therapist and consultant. Dr. Deutsch lectures widely throughout North America and Europe on Parenting Coordination, parenting and child development and complex issues related to family conflict, including parent-child contact problems, attachment, abuse and neglect and trauma.

(AFCC is international with known connections in — North America and Europe.  So, between private practice in several fields and her lecture circuit, when does she run this Center of Excellence?)

She has published extensively on issues related to attachment, alienation, co-parenting after divorce, high conflict divorce, parenting plans and parenting coordination. Dr. Deutsch has performed a wide variety of forensic evaluations and testified in juvenile, family, district and federal courts involving divorce and visitation disputes, relocation, domestic violence, adoption, alienation, abuse and neglect. She provides consultation and expert witness services on boundary violations, ethical issues, child and adolescent development, complex custody issues and custody and parenting evaluations. Dr. Deutsch was a member of the American Psychological Association (APA) task force that developed Guidelines for Parenting Coordinators (2011), the Association of Family and Conciliation Courts (AFCC) Task Force that developed Guidelines for Parenting Coordinators (2006), and the AFCC Task force that developed Guidelines for Court Involved Therapists (2010). She was the former President of the AFCC (2008-2009) and the former Chair of the APA Ethics Committee (2007).

Hofstra University’s Maurice A. Deane School of Law co-publishes “Family Court Review” with the AFCC.  They have, however, radically revised and simplified their main website so it’s pretty unlikely a person not already searching for that information would actually find it:

The Maurice A. Deane School of Law is part of Hofstra University and is fully accredited by the Council of the Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar of the American Bar Association.  I also see on the site for the School of Law that Hofstra’s Barr Pass Rates (2013, 2014) ranging from around 72 to 81%, very average overall, like — about a C+ )….

http://law.hofstra.edu/currentstudents/studentactivities/journals/familycourtreview/about/ (Click to see there’s also a direct link to ‘AFCC’ as well as to the Editorial Board of the “FCR.”  (complete words I guess are going out … acronyms in….If you know what the acronym is, or to look for it, so much the better.  If not, tough luck….)

An Interdisciplinary Journal

Sponsored by AFCC – Association of Family
and Concilition## Courts
Published in cooperation with the
Maurice A. Deane School of Law at Hofstra University

Managing Editor
Ruth C. Stern
Maurice A. Deane School of Law
Hofstra University

Former Editors
Meyer Elkin (1963-1986)
Stanley Cohen (1986-1991)
Hugh McIsaac (1991-1996)
Andrew I. Schepard (1996-2015)


#The mis-spelling “Concilition” has been up there for a long time.  Wonder if anyone reads that website, or reports to the webmaster.  Anyhow, I’d make a note of the “Editorial Board” individuals.  Notably, no links to the individuals at their affiliated websites is offered (why not?).  Robin Deutsch has likewise been a William James College (formerly MSPP) Center of Excellence for Families, Children and the Law — for quite a while (a few years, I’d say), but her affiliation listed here is “Massachusetts General Hospital.”

Robin Deutsch Director, Children and the Law Program
Massachusetts General Hospital
Charlene E. Depner Assistant Director, Center for Families, Children & the Courts, Judicial Council – Administrative Office of the Courts

Incidentally, another reason to keep both AFCC and Hofstra University (as a co-sponsor of its publication Family Court Review, and Hofstra also being a private university in New York State, which has a Unified Court System (partnering with the “Center for Court Innovation” — funded by the Ford Foundation originally, i.e., via “Fund for the City of New York” being the nonprofit)….

New York like California (like Texas, also I’ve notice like Illinois …. Chicago) is a large, coastal state with a huge court system — and policies are shipped cross-continentally through various centers and professionals (and the associations that go with them).  I just realized that the Chief Judge of New York State  just appointed the Hon. Gail A. Prudenti, Chief Administrative Judge (of NYS) — also maintains a relationship with Hofstra, and as of last September 2015, joined one of its Centers (those centers that you do NOT see from the Law School home page….) as chair of the NYS Permanent Judicial Commission on Justice for Children, replacing the late Hon. Judith S. Kaye (formerly Judith S. Kaye — notably AFCC program-friendly)

Hon. A. Gail Prudenti Named Chair of NY’s Permanent Judicial Commission on Justice for Children

On Feb. 2, 2016, Chief Judge Janet DiFiore announced the appointment of the Honorable the Honorable A. Gail Prudenti as chair of the New York State Permanent Judicial Commission on Justice for Children. Judge Prudenti succeeds the late Judith S. Kaye, New York’s longest-serving chief judge, who led the Commission with distinction from 1992 until her recent passing.

“I am both thrilled and humbled that Chief Judge DiFiore has asked me to lead this prestigious Commission, whose vital work is very close to my heart, intersecting as well as completing my objectives as executive director of the Center for Children, Families and the Law,” said Judge Prudenti. “While I can never fill Judge Kaye’s shoes, I am deeply committed to building upon her wonderful legacy and look forward to working with the distinguished members of the Commission to that end.”

Hofstra Law and the Center for Children, Families and the Law have a history of partnering with the Commission ….

About the Permanent Judicial Commission on Justice for Children

Formed in 1988 to improve the lives and life chances of children involved with New York courts, the Commission is made up of judges, lawyers, advocates, physicians, legislators, and state and local officials. At its inception, the Commission predominantly targeted its efforts toward the youngest children before the court, including infants involved in child welfare proceedings. In 1994, the State Court of Appeals designated the Commission to implement the New York State Court Improvement Project (CIP), a federally funded project to assess and improve foster care, termination of parental rights, and adoption proceedings. Since 2006, the group has expanded its focus to include older youth involved with the courts.

Read the full official announcement (PDF).  (which mentions, in addition to a string of remarkable firsts and appointments….)

She earned her law degree from the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, which also awarded her an honorary Doctorate of Laws in 2004 and an honorary appointment as Professor in the School of Law.”   [HUH?  What was her original nationality and when did she become a US Citizen?]

“Related Posts” (on this Hofstra U site announcing the appointment): 

I’ve been saying for years that AFCC (and whoever’s been backing it) is basically running the family courts of the nation, not to mention helping create them (see Meyer Elkin article, this page).  One of these days, some people will start believing me, in reporting what I am simply seeing year after year!  Start understanding this organization better (including how its memberships networks in positions of power and what those positions are, let alone what is the agenda) and you will better understand the family courts themselves, and start talking more sense about “reforming them…”  For example, it’s up-front, in-your-face ridiculous to expect this organization to let go of “parental alienation” while its membership are constantly promoting it, or to DE-frock the centralization of the profession of psychology from the courts….  And that has ramifications….

 Saybrook University Wiki.  Started as the “Humanistic Psychology Institute” at Cal State U Sonoma (in the SF Bay Area, Northern California) in 1971 by Rollo May, 600 students in 2014, ranked in the bottom quartile and 173/185 among psychology doctoral programs not long ago.  It features low-residency masters and doctoral degrees, and professional certifications:

Saybrook University is an educational institution founded in 1971. It offers postgraduate education with a focus on humanistic psychology. It features low residency, master’s and doctoral degrees and professional certification programs. The university is accredited by the Senior Colleges and Universities Commission of the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC).[2][3] As of 2014 the university served 600 students.[4]

In 1971, the American psychologist Rollo May helped to establish the Humanistic Psychology Institute at California State University, Sonoma.[4][5] Later on it was renamed the Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center.[4] Author Michael Mayer recalls that the Saybrook name derives from Saybrook, Connecticut, where during a conference in 1964 several psychologists, including May, expressed a desire “to create a school that embodied the values of the ‘human growth and potential movement’ and to educate practitioner-scholars in the methods and philosophies of human-centered psychotherapy”.[6] In 2009, the school was renamed Saybrook University.[4] The university became affiliated with the shared services organization TCS Education System in 2014 to provide administrative and financial services, so that the school could focus on teaching and research.[7][8] The same year, the school moved from San Francisco to Oakland, California.[9] 

RANKINGS:   Based on a survey of academic programs, US News & World Report ranked Saybrook’s psychology program in the bottom quartile of its 2013 ranking of graduate psychology programs. The precise rankings in this quartile are not published.[14][15] The United States National Research Council rankings (NRC) ranked Saybrook 173/174 out of 185 in its 2014 rankings of 185 psychology PhD programs.[16]

Looking up that Old (1964) Saybrook conference (there was a “Saybrook II” around 1998/1999), while realizing this should be a separate post, this does summarize involved personnel and the general ideas driving it:

The Original “Old Saybrook” ConferenceIn the preface to the second edition of Toward a Psychology of Being (1968), Abraham Maslow wrote:

“Much has happened to the world of Psychology since this book was first published (1962) …I must confess, that I have come to see this humanist trend in psychology as a revolution in the truest, oldest sense in which Galileo, Darwin, Einstein, Freud and Marx made revolutions, i.e., new ways of perceiving and thinking, new images of man and society…”

Between editions of Maslow’s classic, on November 28th through 30th, 1964, the original Old Saybrook conference took place in the little New England Town of Old Saybrook, Connecticut. There, as David Elkins recounts it, “at the Saybrook Inn, a resort hotel and spa, the new American Association for Humanistic Psychology was holding its ‘First Invitational Conference on Humanistic Psychology’. Abe Maslow was there. So was Carl Rogers, and Rollo May, Charlotte Buhler, Clark Moustakas, Floyd Matson, James Bugental, Miles Vich, Robert Knapp, and a host of other luminaries including Henry Murray, Gordon Allport, George Kelly, Gardner Murphy, Robert White, Rene Dubos, Norma Rosenquist, Alvin Lasko, Victor Butterfield, E.J. Shoben and Roman Tratch.”

The original Old Saybrook gathering, though but one significant event, is often credited as a landmark moment in the history of humanistic psychology. The “revolution” Maslow describes had opened doors, some then newly cracked in the field, like Creativity research; others which had been systemically shut to psychology, such as consciousness and self exploration; other doors to European existential-phenomenology, and still others to Eastern philosophical traditions

New Saybrook article (from the same site): Read David Elkins’ article, Old Saybrook I and II: The Visioning and Re-Visioning of Humanistic Psychology, from the December, 1998/January, 1999 issue of the AHP Perspective. Ironically, David Elkins was teaching (a professor) at Pepperdine at the time. I wonder if he’s any relation to the AFCC-folkloric founder, Meyer Elkin… “David N. Elkins, Ph.D., is a licensed psychologist and professor in the Graduate School of Education and Psychology of Pepperdine University and is president of Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology) of APA. His book, Beyond Religion: A Personal Program for Building a Spiritual Life Outside the Walls of Traditional Religion, was recently released by Quest Books.
NOTE: This is an abridged version of Dr. Elkins� text”

August 23, 2010 — Saybrook University announces “David Elkins named Director of Saybrook’s PsyD Program” says he actually helped Pepperdine get (chaired the committee that got)  its APA accreditation.  Interesting!

Saybrook’s Graduate College of Psychology and Humanistic Studies is pleased to announce that David Elkins has been appointed director of the PsyD program.

A licensed clinical psychologist who taught at Pepperdine University for 25 years, Elkins has worked hospital, community health, and private practice settings, and was the Director of the Humanistic Psychology Center in Tustin, California.

Elkins’ background in humanistic psychology is extensive:  he serves on the board of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology and The Humanistic Psychologist;  he has served as a board member of the Association for Humanistic Psychology;  and in 1998-1999 served as president of the APA’s Division 32, Society for Humanistic Psychology.  While at Pepperdine he designed and taught the existential-humanistic psychology track of their PsyD program.  He also chaired the committee that achieved APA accreditation for the Pepperdine PsyD.

Elkins’ most recent book is Humanistic Psychology:  A Clinical Manifesto:  A Critique of Clinical Psychology and the Need for Progressive Alternatives

I found a book review of Elkins‘ “Beyond Religion: A Personal Pathway for Building a Spiritual Life Outside the Walls of Traditional Religion” which says he was a former minister.  Published in Wheaton, IL.:

Schouborg, Gary (2001). Paths to Spirituality: A Review Article of Beyond Religion, by David N. Elkins”. The Humanistic Psychologist, 27 n.3, 369-373.

. . .

Because Elkins views spirituality as indefinable, he approaches it from multiple angles. He characterizes it variously as a hunger for attention and care, for psychological health, for imagination, for passion and depth, for the sacred or numinous, for waking up one’s soul to the wonder of life, for “the more”. The advantage of this approach is that he increases his chances of connecting with someone for whom one phrase or another is particularly meaningful. A further advantage is that the multiple phrases express the kaleidoscopic richness of spirituality. I would be interested, however, in what he thinks might be lost by summing all of what he ascribes to spirituality in the single phrase, emotional responsiveness.

The second half of the book describes eight alternative paths to traditional religion — The Feminine, The Arts, The Body, Psychology, Mythology, Nature, Relationship, Dark Nights of the Soul — concluding with step-by-step instructions on how to walk them. All the paths share in moving us beyond our culture’s over-emphasis on masculine reason, structure, tangibility by appealing to our need for the feminine relational, intuitive, mystical. The concluding chapter is a guide to creating a four-step “Soul Journal” for oneself that helps: (1) identify what sorts of experiences nourish one’s soul; (2) design a program to engage in activities that will produce those experiences; (3) engage in those activities; (4) evaluate how well the Soul Journal is nurturing the soul. Elkins’ instructions are do-able and sensitive to the unique needs of each individual.


(Elkins =/= Elkin.  Meyer Elkin died in 1994 at age 1978; here’s his Los Angeles Times Obituary.  I am reminded that the mediation unit, called “Los Angeles Conciliation Court” which it says he founded, not in 1963 — but earlier; it says, in 1955, and that this was not the Los Angeles Superior Court itself, but a unit within it.  

Meyer Elkin:  Founder, Los Angeles County Conciliation Court (L.A. times, 4/15/1994)

Meyer Elkin, 78, founder of the Los Angeles County Conciliation Court. The unusual mediation unit, which he set up in 1955 as a part of Los Angeles County Superior Court, handles divorce and custody disputes and provides court-ordered counseling for the families involved. Elkin also founded and edited the professional journal Conciliation Courts Review and helped to found the Assn. of Family Conciliation Courts. After growing up in Brooklyn, N.Y., he began his career as a parole officer in Tuscon. A social worker deeply involved in community social problems, Elkin worked throughout his life to aid families and young people. After his retirement in 1977, he devoted his attention to what is now El Nido Family Centers in Los Angeles. He served on the board, as president and as an adviser to the nonprofit family counseling agency. Elkin earned the Koshland Award, California’s top accolade for achievement in social work, and the Leadership Award of the American Assn. of Marriage and Family Counselors. On March 17 in Beverly Hills of emphysema.

You can see the same missionary zeal to transform society in this summary, and determination to “keep the vision going — only more relevant to this time.” There’s a certain disdain for “reductionistic science” and elevation for “other ways of knowing” in this language. The scientific method is actually frowned upon, it seems, in some of these circles, while the “practitioners” still enjoy the professional titles, jargon (“Forensic, clinical, scientific, evaluative, ….”) which would, in fact, be more appropriate to scientists who do practice the method as part of their normal work lives:

. . . That small conference in Old Saybrook, Connecticut, helped clarify the vision and set the course of the field in America. Within a few years this movement would become a major “third force” in American psychology. It would spawn various humanistic organizations, provide a penetrating critique of reductionistic science, create an array of new approaches to counseling and psychotherapy, and articulate new research methodologies and “ways of knowing” in the search for knowledge. Maslow would become president of the American Psychological Association; Rogers would receive two of APA’s most prestigious awards – one for his contributions to science and the other for his contributions to practice.

While humanistic psychology seemed to be making inroads into the academic and professional community, the humanistic vision was moving out into the streets of America. Its values and ideals became part of the counterculture of the 1960s and 1970s. The human potential movement was born and spread through our society in the form of encounter groups, growth centers, body therapies, communes, alternative life styles, and new spiritualities. The humanistic voice echoed in the issues of the day women’s liberation, civil rights, the Vietnam War.

Some scholars in the movement became concerned that humanistic psychology was being preempted by the counterculture and, as a result, its message was not being heard or taken seriously in the research centers and halls of academia. Indeed, from a historical perspective it seems that mainstream american psychology, after only a brief humanistic pause in the 1960s, went merrily on its positivistic and reductionistic way.

“Positivistic and reductionistic” meaning …???

This is where Old Saybrook II comes in. First and foremost, Old Saybrook II is a scholarly endeavor to sort out the past thirty-five years of the humanistic movement in America and to rekindle the vision of psychology that was articulated in 1964. The Old Saybrook II scholars realize that the rekindled vision must reflect our times. It must address the scholarly and intellectual issues of our day, and it must have both the substance and the flavor of the twenty-first century. In short, the task of Old Saybrook II is to “re-vision” humanistic psychology for our times. As the official description of the project puts it:

The present Old Saybrook II Project is designed to ask again some of the key questions addressed at Old Saybrook in light of the great cultural transformations now upon us. In particular, it is to look again at the interface between psychology, the humanities, spirituality, and the social sciences at the beginning of what many describe as an era of postmodernity or transmodernity.

A central question is: How does the vision of psychology articulated at Old Saybrook, which boldly asserted both the plenitude and subtleties of Human Being, now reaffirm itself in an era of information and communication technology, which includes as its symptoms a globalizing economy, an acute awareness of environmental crises, managed health care, and the rampant industrialization of mental health and human services?

The Old Saybrook II Project will explore what aspects of Humanistic Psychology theory and praxis need to be deconstructed and reconstructed in the light of new social structures and cultural realities, and will ask what service a reinvigorated and reframed person-centered psychology can offer to a world the process of reinventing itself.

Here’s a profile of a Wm. James College graduate (Eric D. Willmarth) at “hypnosiscentral.com,”  active at Saybrook and in the Hypnosis fields, with two sons, one who became a psychologist and the other, already having a bachelor’s in psychology, now getting a teaching certificate.

Eric K. Willmarth, Ph.D., is a fully licensed psychologist living with his wife Carol in Grand Rapids, Michigan. He has two sons, Dr. Kevin Willmarth, a psychologist in Ohio and Alex Willmarth, who has his bachelor’s degree in psychology and is now attending Oakland University seeking his teaching certificate.

Dr. Willmarth received his Bachelor’s Degree from William James College, his Master’s Degree in Clinical Psychology from Eastern Michigan University, and his Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from the Fielding Graduate University. He is a past  president of both the Michigan  Society of  Behavioral  Medicine and Biofeedback and the Michigan Society of Clinical Hypnosis. He is also the past president of the APA Division 30-Psychological Hypnosis and currently serves as President of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis.

Eric is Board Certified in Pain Management by the American Academy of Pain Management, a Fellow of the Society of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, an Approved Consultant of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis, and a member of the International Society of Hypnosis. He has been an adjunct professor at the Forest School of Professional Psychology and Western Michigan University. He is currently the Director of Training for Saybrook University’s College of Integrative Medicine and Health Sciences where he also serves as the Director of the Integrative Mental Health Specialization.  He teaches the Advanced Hypnosis and the Advanced Biofeedback Practicum courses along with the Basic and Intermediate Hypnosis Courses at Saybrook.

Eric is the founder and president of Michigan Behavioral Consultants (www.michiganbehavioral.com), a group psychology and social work practice focused on pain management and behavioral health. The group offers multiple forms of therapy and psychological testing services at locations throughout Michigan.

A life-long musician and photographer, Eric has spent years videotaping interviews with the giants of hypnosis research and practice. “The Willmarth Interviews” will hopefully promote the appropriate use and understanding of clinical hypnosis and pay tribute to the many talented men and women who contribute to this field.

(End of post-publication insert about the Schools of Professional Psychology!  Originally, I continued as below….//LGH, 2/29/2016)


I also took a sidelong look at the credentialing college of the psychologist in the Minnesota case who was also involved with the MSPP and Argosy, which credentialing (mill) got its own separate investigation by “Pro Publica” which tells us something about the fascination with having credentialing (more letters behind the name in addition to the degrees obtained) in contrast with the behavior of the credentialing organizations themselves, and just what it takes to become a Fellow or Diplomate of the one involved.  Argosy was large enough alone, but swallowed up by something even larger, which is where it gets interesting and as a comment on the cradle-to-career pipeline, as managed by those at the corporate/investment end of the ownership of, well, that pipeline.

I wrote this post rather quickly in late January, spruced it up some here, and hope it’s if nothing else, a little entertaining – and of course, illuminating.  Not my primary focus, though, these days…

Being who I am (Ms. Look-it-up) I learned about the original investors, two men formerly investment bankers at Lazard Freres & Company, (<== read the VERY interesting history for a refresher) and their sponsorship of a disgraced (including by whistleblowers) EDMC (Education Management Corporation), and more.

Before the end of this post, we’ll get the former Governor of Tennessee, Lamar Alexander, and some Goldman-Sachs, and I even see Cincinnati, Ohio’s “KnowledgeWorks” gets in there.  I can connect that to Minneapolis’ “GenerationNext” (which I was looking at last summer, along with certain major community foundations within MN, and in California) which is modeled after “StriveTogether” which is (if one continues clicking on logos and reading fine print at the bottom of web-pages) a “subsidiary” of KnowledgeWorks.”

Because that’s  tangential to this post, I’ll just include some links, and a reminder, that some (investors’) pulses start racing, and their eyes gleaming, with the sheer scope of education itself as a reproducible, and heavily, federally-financed and technology-assisted, trademarked, endeavor suitable for national standardization. We are talking FOR-PROFIT Education, “Every Child, Cradle to Career,” Closing the Achievement Gap (etc.), with formulas applied to various metro areas:


Generation Next takes a cohesive, all-in approach to address our educational and community crisis. The partnership brings education, community, government and business leaders together to identify and adopt successful programs that are proven to work.

Together, Generation Next leaders will use a cradle-to-career framework to help students achieve five key goals, or success benchmarks. These goals are research-based competencies and key transition points that are necessary for students’ developmental progress. To ensure effective programs and consistent measures of achievement, networks of providers will focus on specific topics within the five key goals. Using data-based decision-making, we will identify a clear way forward, finding and implementing the most effective educational solutions and programs.

Modeled on success: the National StriveTogether Network
Generation Next is modeled on the successes of the National StriveTogether™ Network, whose programs have produced positive results in more than 20 metropolitan school districts, including Milwaukee, Cincinnati, Boston, Portland and San Francisco.

For example, during its first five years in Greater Cincinnati, StriveTogether™ achieved positive improvements in 40 of 53 educational outcomes measured, including

Strivetogether.org (“Every Child, Cradle to Career”)…along with “EDWorks” (aimed at older children, also seen at top of web page, fine print) is labeled a subsidiary of KnowledgeWorks.

Search Again (their 990s.  Shows organization was founded in 1991; the wrong title at bottom is not the organization’s mistake, but the database (FoundationCenter.org’s)…I searched by EIN#…

KnowledgeWorks Foundation OH 2014 990 54 $68,738,117.00 31-1321973
Strive: Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, LLC OH 2013 990 46 $151,983,301.00 31-1321973
Knowledgeworks Foundation OH 2012 990 57 $180,038,043.00 31-1321973

NOTE:  These tax returns need to be looked at and discussed in detail. I am not commenting on them here, other than that their major “Program Service Revenue” dwarfs their contributions; the contributions are NOT showing primarily government (but as Program Service Revenue is serving school districts, that’s still “public-supported.”  There are SEVERAL LLC “disregarded entities” (a term I guess it’s time I got a working definition of!) and a few tax-exempt related entities (Schedule R).   Their staff are WELL paid (Part VIIA), and on the Balance Sheets, some of the “Investments — Other” are “program-related” and, we are talking $52M out of $68M assets (top row return) is for student loans.  They are running it well into the negative each year (or so the return says) as you can see by the declines between 2012-2014.).   I am only one person.  Other people need to look at these too!


“LAZARD.”  Interesting that it first began in unity but first the UK, then the Glass-Steagall Act in the USA, seems to have forced the multi-nationally positioned companies started by the brothers (and cousins) to separate their operations.  In the 1980s, and asset management firm was added in England.  In 2000, they were again united, and I note the form of business chosen was “LLC.”

(New Orleans, San Francisco, New York, Paris and London):

Lazard’s roots began in the 1840s with the emigration of five French brothers and several cousins to the United States. In 1848, Alexandre, Lazare, and Simon Lazard founded Lazard Frères & Co. in New Orleans as a dry goods merchant.

By 1851, Lazard Frères had moved to San Francisco, where it would expand into banking and foreign exchange. In the same year, one of the brothers opened a New York office. In 1854, Lazard Frères opened an office in Paris. It soon began advising the French government on gold buying. In 1870, the family opened an office in London.

That’s pretty fast expansion and coordination, I’d say!  Interesting how retail success came first, before the banking and foreign exchange.

In the late 1800s and early 1900s, the firm evolved into three ‘Houses of Lazard’ in the United States, France, and England separately managed but allied. The Lazard partners advised clients on financial matters and enhanced their cross-border network of relationships in business and government.   An early cross-border success came in 1928, when the French office partnered with American investors to purchase and expand the financing arm of Citroen, the French automaker. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, Lazard mobilized its network again to help save Citroen from bankruptcy.

Some of the greatest names in 20th century finance established and enhanced Lazard’s reputation in the economic recovery following World War II. They included André Meyer, widely regarded as a genius of investment banking; Michel David-Weill, who oversaw the firm’s transformation into a mergers and acquisitions powerhouse; and Felix Rohatyn, whose many accomplishments include his pivotal role in saving New York City from bankruptcy in 1975.

Meanwhile ….

1919 U.K. restrictions on foreign ownership force Lazard to sell controlling stake of London branch. The firm effectively becomes three houses: Lazard Frères et Cie, Lazard Frères & Co. (Lazard New York), and Lazard Brothers

1933 Lazard New York ceases commercial banking activities after enactment of the Glass-Steagall Act, and commits to financial advisory services

1953 Lazard Investors Ltd begins asset management operations in London

1970 Lazard Asset Management is formed
1984 A new entity, Lazard Partners, is formed to control the three Houses of Lazard

In 2000, after more than 150 years of separate management, the Houses of Lazard formally united into a single entity to best serve our clients. In 2005, under the leadership of Bruce Wasserstein, Lazard became a public company, with nearly two-thirds of its shares owned by current and former employees. Since November 2009, Kenneth M. Jacobs has led the firm.

2000 The Houses of Lazard unite to form Lazard LLC

2005  After 157 years as a private partnership, Lazard becomes a public firm, listing on the New York Stock Exchange as LAZ

Today Still expanding its global network of relationships, Lazard has offices in 43 cities across 27 countries

That second “EDMC” link above ((Education Management Corporation)  is to a “funding universe” website which gives sort of neutral historical accounts of corporations.  I don’t know what year this one was from, but I have enjoyed reading (learned a lot) from their corporation summaries, many of which give insight into the history of this country, in which certain corporations play a huge part.  This cannot be the most current description (I see Key Dates only goes to year 2000, and below, its evident that 2014 was a definite “key date” in EDMC — it was “delisted” from the stock market!)  For better understanding (including of the rest of this post, and to get a sense of the type of schools EDMC was into, and its style of acquiring new ones, I recommend just read through it.

Interesting (in light of the Grazzini-Rucki judge involved, David Knutson) that for a long while the leadership of EDMC was a Robert L. Knutson and his wife (formerly Drucker)…..Again, this is FOR-PROFIT education in certain fields….

EDMC Key Dates: (from “funding universe.com”)

1962:Education Management Corporation (EDMC) is founded. 
1970:Company acquires The Art Institute of Pittsburgh. 
1971:Company begins a series of eight acquisitions. 
1993:EDMC initiates four-year degree programs. 
1996:Initial public offering of stock. 
1997:Average enrollment reaches 14,490 students. 
1999:Company launches The Art Institute Online. 
2000:EDMC opens The Art Institute of Washington, D.C. 

Company History:  The Education Management Corporation (EDMC) owns and operates 22 post-secondary schools nationwide, providing career education to more than 24,000 students from throughout the United States and over 80 foreign countries. The company offers certificates, Associate degrees, or Bachelor’s degrees in: culinary arts/management; graphic design; industrial design technology; photography; interior design; computer animation; fashion design/marketing; multimedia and web site design; online media & marketing; interactive multimedia programming; game art & design; and video/audio production. At the National Center for Paralegal Studies in Atlanta, EDMC offers an Associate of Arts degree in legal studies, as well as certificate programs for administrative assistants to the legal profession. EDMC’s schools are located in major metropolitan areas in 13 states and Washington D.C. EDMC counts over 100,000 alumni.

Before it “went down” (as to being available for public listing on the stock market) it expanded — significantly, under Robert B. Knutson and Miryam L. Drucker, later “Knutson” (they married), as you can see:

Robert B. Knutson joined EDMC in 1969 and became president of the company in 1971. Knutson would oversee a period of expansion through acquisition. Over the next 15 years, EDMC would add to its higher education holdings with eight acquisitions, seven of which would involve commercial arts schools in Denver, Ft. Lauderdale, Atlanta, Philadelphia, Dallas, Houston, and Seattle. The company grouped these, in a national marketing campaign, as ‘The Art Institutes.’ The eighth acquisition, of the National Center for Paralegal Training, offered certificates in legal studies. Another driving force behind EDMC’s expansion was Knutson’s wife, Miryam L. Drucker, who joined the company in 1984 as president of The Art Institute of Dallas, becoming president of The Art Institute of Fort Lauderdale before heading up the Art Institutes umbrella organization in 1988. She and Knutson were married during this time.

Under Knutson, who became EDMC’s chairman and CEO in 1986, and Miryam Knutson, who in 1989 was named president and chief operating officer, the company upgraded and expanded the educational capacities of its schools by improving student services, updating the curriculum, upgrading facilities and equipment, and increasing the quality and quantity of faculty members.

Also during this time, the company gave increased attention to implementing technology in the classroom, embarking on a multimillion dollar investment in classroom technology to provide vocational training in computer animation, video production, and desktop publishing. EDMC instituted new programs and restructured several existing programs in order to improve the proportion of students who completed the programs. Some of the schools offering Associate degrees in interior design, industrial design, and graphics design built those programs into Bachelor of Arts degrees in 1993. EDMC also initiated career and employment programs to assist graduates in finding quality entry level positions with higher starting salaries.



It turns out EDMC had to exit their stock-exchange (public company) status in 2014. Then (references and links below on this post), it also had to face the lawsuits:

On Nov. 16, 2015, federal and state authorities announced a $95.5-million settlement resolving a whistleblower case in which former EDMC employees said the company was “illegally paying recruiters based on the number of students they enrolled.” [16]

You have to wonder what might inspire a major investment banking company (or rather, two of its former employees or bankers) to branch out into for-profit education, then fail — abysmally, at least from the school’s perspective — and promote, with others, the professional schools of psychology along the way.  We are talking, mergers & acquisitions, education-style.

In addition, in the course of a forensic credentialing organization (American College of Forensic Examiners) which accounts for most of the initials below pertaining to a specific court-appointed psychologist ( Paul Reitman, Ph.D., L.P., F.A.C.F.E.) affecting two runaway teenaged girls, (recently found and being reunited with their father they ran away from, as “brainwashed” allegedly by their mother — now** in prison for felony parental interference, and with others who may have helped her ALSO being charged with felonies), there’s the Pro Publica/Frontline investigations of the credentialing outfit, AFCEI.

(** In prison when post was first written.  Since then, she’s been released.  2/25/2016 post “Sandra Grazzini-Rucki Released:  From Million-Dollar Bail to Released on Own Recognizance“)

Later (not this post) the investor plunge into inter-net based for-profit college educations DOES overlap with the court-connected corporations, and with major community foundations across the country.  We are talking, the basic math of reproducible results with downloadable curricula, and much more, and what happens after people are run through the courses (or, degree programs), much the poorer financially (although the owners certainly aren’t), and not necessarily much better off professionally or, which should be the public’s concern, ethically.

  • A topic of ongoing interest — possibly part of my “2016” blogging theme — why such high respect continues to be dedicated to the field of psychology, and what business court-appointed psychologists are involved in, in disputed custody cases.

Some girls ran away, their mother got jailed for it, and their father was subjected to extreme distress for not knowing where they were — after a court-appointed psychologists, Paul Reitman, PhD, LP, FACFE, determined that they’d not actually been abused — but brainwashed into  believing they were abused.  (Where have we heard THAT one before??? And, how many times?)

Is Reitman really a Rogue Psychologist/Therapist?

Typically if I get involved looking up information about an individual in some custody case, when commenting on a blog, my purpose is not the individual, but the system, and for demonstrating to others involved that these things are possible to look up and gain some historic understanding of.  Usually, it goes out to deaf ears, but if that was my concern, I’d have stopped blogging years ago.

Apparently I did some comments a while back on Carver County Corruption also.  Red Herring Alert’s blog by Dede Evavold, “MN Rogue Psychologists/Therapists” referred to some in the Grazzini-Rucki Case.  Paul Reitman, James Gilbertson.   While I’m thankful for the reblogging, on this post, I think the word “rogue” is an assumption, even as the word “Broken” referring to the family courts is also an assumption. It’s a catchy label, but may not apply here.

“ROGUE” implies loner, off-course, different from the rest, and more.  This Online Etymology Dictionary (<=link to “Rogue”) breaks origins and usage of words down to give their more basic meanings.  I’ve quoted it often in the blog.  Here’s “ROGUE”

rogue (n.) Look up rogue at Dictionary.com1560s, “idle vagrant,” perhaps a shortened form of roger (with a hard -g-), thieves’ slang for a begging vagabond who pretends to be a poor scholar from Oxford or Cambridge, which is perhaps an agent noun in English from Latin rogare “to ask.” Another theory [Klein] traces it to Celtic (compare Breton rog “haughty”); OED says, “There is no evidence of connexion with F. rogue ‘arrogant.’ ”

In playful or affectionate use, “one who is mischievous,” 1590s. Meaning “large wild beast living apart from the herd” is from 1859, originally of elephants. Meaning “something uncontrolled or undisciplinedis from 1964. Also common in 17c. as a verb. Rogue’s gallery “police collection of mug shots” is attested from 1859.

This implies, the rest of the herd is right-on, just this one, or these few, have strayed apart as outlaws or atypical.   Whether or not they are would require a more diligent and comprehensive look at “the herd” itself.  Here, the term is psychologists, and specifically (if we’re referring to the one in question here, Reitman), the professionalization of psychology in the United States, which is fairly recent when it comes to setting up the independent “Schools of Professional Psychology” should be looked at.   If this one was “rogue” what does “not-rogue” look like?  

Same deal with groups such as “The Leadership Council,” which hope to redeem their profession by purging it of unscientific theories — not critique the profession itself.

Here’s an informative (as to some of the timelines) Newsweek article, 11/21/2015, “Did the Missing Rucki Sisters Want to be Found?” by Max Kutner

…Having been a cop for 26 years, I have never seen anything like the obstruction, chaos and questionable decision making I have seen in this case,” Jeff Long, the police chief in Lakeville, Minnesota, where the Rucki family lived, wrote in May.

The Newsweek article also at least names the court-appointed psychologist who said the girls had been brainwashed into believing they were abused:  Paul Reitman, Ph.D., L.P., F.A.C.F.E. [some psychologists are more into multiple initials supporting their qualifications than others, but it is a tendency in the field overall, as well as continuing to borrow words from other disciplines, such as “forensic” to emphasize the scientific neutrality and objectivity of the field…. … … ]

Interesting from this site, how Dr. Reitman works with three other women only, two of who trained with him.  His specialties are listed in this order:

Forensic specialties include civil commitments of:

  • Mentally ill
  • Chemically dependent
  • Mentally ill and dangerous
  • Sexually dangerous
  • Sexually psychopathic persons

Paul also works in these areas:

  • Family Law
  • No Fault Law
  • Criminal Law
  • Workman’s Compensation
  • Wrongful Termination
  • Sexual Harassment
Family law not being his main area.  The “FACFE” stands for Fellow of the American College of Forensic Examiners,

What is a Forensic Examiner?

The term “forensic examiner” refers to a professional who performs an orderly analysis, investigation, inquiry, test, inspection, or examination in an attempt to obtain the truth and form an expert* opinion. Almost every scientific and technical field has a forensic application. A forensic examination refers to that part of a professional’s practice that is carried out to provide an expert* opinion.

*Note: Only a judge, under Rule 702, can qualify a professional as an “expert” in a given court case.

This brings up the whole field of obtaining credentials to assist one’s profession and inspire respect among potential (and current) clients, so what does it take (and mean) to become a Fellow?  Well, to be a Fellow, one must first obtain Diplomate status, for which:

Become a Diplomate Now!

By being a member in good standing and successfully completing one of ACFEI’s certifications, you have earned the opportunity to elevate your status to becoming a Diplomate and a Fellow of ACFEI.

 . . Earn your way to Fellow upgrade once you are a Diplomate for 3 years

What are the requirements for Diplomate status?

» Be a member in good standing with ACFEI for at least two (2) years.

» Successfully complete one of ACFEI’s certifications.

» Have no felony convictions or ethical violations in the last ten (10) years,as well as not be under investigation by any legal, accounting, or licensing board.

» Agree to adhere to ACFEI’s Principles of Professional Practice.

» Have appropriate educational degrees from accredited universities and have five (5) years of relative experience in a forensic-related field.

» Pay the one-time processing fee of $250

See more at:

ProPublica apparently studied the ACFEI, I see a 2012 “No Forensic Background? No Problem” article, referring to a different field.  Check it out:

This is how I — a journalism graduate student with no background in forensics — became certified as a “Forensic Consultant” by one of the field’s largest professional groups.

One afternoon early last year, I punched in my credit card information, paid $495 to the American College of Forensic Examiners International Inc. and registered for an online course.

After about 90 minutes of video instruction, I took an exam on the institute’s web site, answering 100multiple choice questions, aided by several ACFEI study packets.

As soon as I finished the test, a screen popped up saying that I had passed, earning me an impressive-sounding credential that could help establish my qualifications to be an expert witness in criminal and civil trials.

For another $50, ACFEI mailed me a white lab coat after sending my certificate.

For the last two years, ProPublica and PBS “Frontline,” in concert with other news organizations, have looked in-depth atdeath investigation in America, finding a pervasive lack of national standards that begins in the autopsy room and ends in court.

Expert witnesses routinely sway trial verdicts with testimony about fingerprints, ballistics, hair and fiber analysis and more, but there are no national standards to measure their competency or ensure that what they say is valid. A landmark 2009 report by the National Academy of Sciences called this lack of standards one of the most pressing problems facing the criminal justice system.

Over the last two decades, ACFEI has emerged as one of the largest forensic credentialing organizations in the country….

Ever heard of the (in)famous credentialed cat  “Zoe D. Katz“?   That was ACFEI.  Read the rest of the article, including (to be fair) its owner’s response — only a judge can qualify an expert to testify in court.  Also at ProPublica and by Leah Bartos (April 11, 2014), I see that the ACFEI sold off its forensic accounting division.

The issue of credentialing as “quality control” in court-appointed experts is a live issue for me, at this time (although in a different field), and this quote expresses it well:

Shakeup at Forensic Credentialing OrgThe nation’s largest forensic expert college will sell its forensic accounting division, following a series of investigations by ProPublica and Frontline.”

The group, the American College of Forensic Examiners Institute (ACFEI), quietly put up for sale its forensic accounting division — one of its most prominent programs — prompting the unanimous resignation of that division’s entire advisory board. The volunteer accounting board oversaw ACFEI’s certification program for experts in financial investigations. …

“It’s up to the judge whether a witness is qualified as an expert — which is true —but when you take a look at the dockets, they’re jammed,” said Suzanne Hillman, a CPA who often testifies in financial fraud cases in the Washington, D.C. area. “You see certification, it gives you a little bit of a feeling of comfort.”

Hillman said she sought ACFEI’s Certified Forensic Accountant credential because, “I knew I had a wealth of experience and was seeking to add the credential that would, in essence, summarize that quickly.” Hillman also joined ACFEI’s forensic accounting board, but resigned at the end of 2013, similarly disillusioned with the organization.

Hillman has since removed Certified Forensic Accountant from her title.

She believes the lack of regulation on certifying experts damages the entire justice system. “To the judges, jurors and lawyers, I don’t think the message has totally gotten out to them that there’s problems with some of these credentials,” Hillman said

Maybe this post — and more like it — may help…

Anyway, here’s a bit more information from Paul Reitmann’s  fairly straightforward website, a wordpress blog:

Psychological assessments form the background of his practice and he is a very frequent presenter on the subject.

  • Presented at the 2006 annual Minnesota Judges’ Conference and spoke on a panel about wrongful sexual abuse allegations and how evaluations should be conducted.  Also on the panel were the Honorable Judge Robert Birnbaum and the Honorable Judge Gordon Schumaker from the appellate court.
  • Dr. Reitman teaches doctoral students and supervises clinical interns from the Minnesota School of Professional Psychology as well as Ph.D. clinical psychology students from the University of Minnesota in forensic practicum.

Court Appointed Psychologist to conduct assessments for the Sexually Dangerous Person Commitment, Sexual Psychopathic Commitment

  • For counties throughout Minnesota


The topic of expanding and developing the profession of psychology through forming independent schools of professional psychology is a major issue; I have some posts addressing the topic; see also “Nicholas J. Cummings” on this blog.


Here’s the link for the Minnesota School of Professional Psychology(r) at Argosy University.  The accreditation is by the APA’s accreditation committee.  Argosy University has Administrative Offices in Orange, California (per the fine print at bottom of the page) and one look at the website shows it’s not a traditional college.  (Big letters, lots of white space, a lot less detail).  “Our History and Mission” is laid out like a high school essay..  While it lists its 8 colleges (covering 28 campuses nationwide), there is no link on any of them leading to further information.

As you can see, it blended institutes from three different states (California, Florida and Minneapolis!) only in 2001 to be named “Argosy,” and the emphasis is not medical as in M.D., but in the associated, “allied” disciplines supporting the medical practice:

Built on a diverse and rich academic foundation, Argosy University was formed in 2001 with the merging of three separate academic institutions—the American Schools** of Professional Psychology, the University of Sarasota, and the Medical Institute of Minnesota.

The Illinois School of Professional Psychology, the first of the American Schools** of Professional Psychology, was founded in the 1976 (sic) by a group of psychologists, educators, and other professionals who called for a clinical psychology degree that emphasized teaching and practical training over the research-oriented approach of the traditional PhD degree. This effort ultimately led to the creation of the Doctor of Psychology (PsyD) degree, which we still offer today.

**From another source (well, “Wiki”) “Schools” appears to be singular, not plural, with the Illinois School simply changing its name to American School.

“founded in the 1976″?

The University of Sarasota also had a long history as an academic institution with programs for working adults, tracing its roots to 1969 when it was founded under a different name. {{Too busy to tell us what the name was??}} The University of Sarasota also boasted an innovative delivery format that mixed distance learning with brief, intensive on-campus study periods.

The third school, the Medical Institute of Minnesota, brought to the table its own rich heritage, which began when it was established in 1961 in response to the emerging needs of the medical community, with the goal of preparing skilled allied healthcare personnel for careers in the booming medical technology fields.

Today, Argosy University supports one of the largest graduate student communities in the nation. We offer 28 campus locations across the United States as well as a number of degree programs online. At our campuses and online, Argosy University offers undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate programs through these 8 colleges:

  • College of Arts & Sciences
  • College of Counseling, Psychology and Social Sciences
  • College of Clinical Psychology
  • College of Education
  • College of Health Sciences
  • Graduate School of Business & Management
  • College of Creative Arts and Design
  • Western State College of Law at Argosy University

The Wikipedia article on Argosy University has a rather different picture of Argosy and at least relates who was buying whom in this private, for-profit acquisition fest, as well as who was suing whom in which state for what kind of deceptive statements made to students about the status of their credentials:

Argosy University is a system of for-profit colleges owned by Education Management Corporation.[3] The university maintains 28 locations in the United States, as well as an online division.[4]

Taking this one piece at a time (click on “EDMC”) we can see what type of problems the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania-based EDMC has been having recently — delisted from NASDAQ Nov. 2014 (public offering had been made in 1996), eliminated about 2,300 positions 2013-2014, … In 2011, it drew negative attention (again, involving “Frontline”) when a disabled Iraqi veteran decided it wasn’t worth wasting GI-bill education dollars on the place….

“EDMC has faced significant financial problems, including a 99% drop in the value of its stock and a defaulted bond rating (to junk bond status).[8] Under a pending agreement, shareholder stock value will be diluted an additional 96%.[9][10] Moody’s credit rating service in January 2015 dropped EDMC to its lowest rating, D-PD.[11] EDMC’s CEO, Edward West, resigned from the company on August 28, 2015, “to pursue other interests”. The company was never profitable under his leadership.[12]”

EDMC has been the subject of several lawsuits and investigations alleging that the company made misleading claims in its efforts to recruit students.[14][15]
On Nov. 16, 2015, federal and state authorities announced a $95.5-million settlement resolving a whistleblower case in which former EDMC employees said the company was “illegally paying recruiters based on the number of students they enrolled.” [16]

[[I see Argosy Education Group was in Chicago; I also see that from 2004-2007, the CEO was former governor of Maine John McKernan…]]

In July 2001, EDMC purchased Chicago-based Argosy Education Group, the operator of Argosy University campuses, for $78 million ($104 million in 2016 dollars). The acquisition allowed EDMC to offer programs in law, education and business.[29][31] …

{{Amazing — keep reading!, as Goldman Sachs and others get involved}}

Goldman SachsProvidence Equity Partners and Leeds Equity Partners acquired EDMC and its 70 schools for $3.4 billion in March 2006 ($3.99 billion in 2016 dollars). On June 1, 2006, EDMC was taken private once again in the largest for-profit education sector buyout at that time.[18][36][37] At the time of the acquisition EDMC’s schools were serving around 72,000 students, 4,000 of whom were enrolled in online programs.[18] The additional capital was used grow online enrollment to more than 40,000 students by the end of the decade, made possible in part by a 2006 Congressional revision to the “50% rule”, which formerly required accredited schools to enroll more than half their students in campus-based programs in order to maintain federal loan eligibility.[18][38] 

So, as you can see, it was taken private for three years (2006-2009; interesting how this spanned also “the recession” of 2008 nicely… ….) and increased on-line students TENFOLD (4,000 to 40,000), enabled in part by Congress helping change the rules so this could be done.

Take a look also under “Leeds Equity Partners” (link, above), which I note only formed in about 1993 by two individuals:

The firm was founded in 1993 by Jeffrey T. Leeds and Robert A. Bernstein and raised its first private equity fund in 1995.[1] In 2010, the firm established Leeds Global Partners which provides education advisory and implementation services.[2]

I’m looking at the footnote #1 from that wiki, a 1999 NYTimes Article:

Investors See Room for Profit In the Demand for Education

When Arthur Levine, president of Teachers College at Columbia University, met last year with Michael Milken, the ”fallen junk bond king turned education entrepreneur,” it was more than a case of the old school meeting the new.

The message was, ‘You guys are in trouble and we’re going to eat your lunch,’ ” Dr. Levine said, recalling what he considered not a direct threat but a kind of predatory challenge.

Mr. Milken, whose Knowledge Universe companies range from preschool to corporate training, is not the only one who is hungry. Businessmen like Paul Allen, the co-founder of Microsoft, and Lamar Alexander, the former presidential hopeful and former governor of Tennessee, are flocking to education, bringing with them a flood of dollars. They say they will turn the $700 billion education sector into ”the next health care” — that is, transform large portions of a fragmented, cottage industry of independent, nonprofit institutions into a consolidated, professionally managed, money-making set of businesses that include all levels of education.

 I wouldn’t quote this here if it wasn’t relevant.  I’m seeing it throughout the system also, do take note if you haven’t already, because this does involve tax dollars, despite the next paragraph’s statement that it doesn’t.  This is within about only the second decade of widespread public involvement with the Internet (remember, that thing hasn’t been around throughout the 1900s — only in the latter part of them!)

For-profit companies are setting up law schools and new elementary schools, training factory-floor employees to use computers and taking over the operations of existing junior high and high schools. Their motives, the companies say, are to wring the waste from a system built largely on public largess and nonprofit benevolence, turning it into an efficiently run and profitable machine — using investors’ money instead of tax dollars.

”Changes in education are coming as surely as the Berlin Wall went down,” said William F. Weld, the former governor of Massachusetts who is part of a group that has raised $150 million to invest in for-profit education and training and which hopes to raise another $100 million by early next year.

Eight years ago, when he was governor, Mr. Weld encountered stiff opposition to the concept of schools managed by for-profit companies. This month, Edison Schools Inc., the Whittle brainchild that operates 79 new and existing elementary and secondary schools in 16 states, including Massachusetts, hopes to sell $170 million in stock to the public.

”These ideas would not have flown in 1991,” Mr. Weld said. ”People just couldn’t wrap their minds around it. Now we can’t put the genie back in the bottle.”

Why?  Because of the profit motive — look at the replication/standardization possible through moving education into an on-line scenario!

In many ways, the race to invest in education marks the triumph of a market mentality that has consumed the nation in the late 20th century. No longer is education, where institutions of learning grew out of religion, the route to spiritual enlightenment. For many students, it is the place to start a business or accelerate their movement up the career ladder. ….

Where for-profit enterprises have been introduced in education, there is little evidence so far that students are performing better, that high school graduates are getting better jobs or that corporations are teaching skills that benefit the individual as well as the company.

And from page 2 of the article (it’s a good article!), the reference to Jeffrey T. Leeds and Robert A. Bernstein tells where they came from — investment bankers at Lazard Freres & Company! — and, put together with what happened to “EDMC,” later, which they invested in along with Goldman Sachs and Providence Equity Partners, I’m starting to think people ought to begin educating themselves again, and their children, somehow, some way — rather than enroll them in multi-billion-dollar conglomerates, whether privately run, or run by State and Federal Departments of Education!!

Edison, the much-publicized effort by Mr. Whittle to build a better public school, is a long way from profitability. In the year ended June 30, the company lost $50.5 million on revenues of $132 million. Since its inception, Edison’s losses total $113 million.

By taking on the elementary and secondary school market, Edison was somewhat unusual among for-profit education companies. Most efforts are focused on areas where others have already forged for-profit businesses and where it is likely to be far easier to make money — the sale of textbooks and school supplies, for example, publication of learning materials, operation of preschools and delivery of classes and test preparation services over the Internet.

Those are the areas where the partnership including Mr. Weld hopes to succeed. The group, known as Leeds Equity Partners III, will be managed by Jeffrey T. Leeds and Robert A. Bernstein, two former investment bankers at Lazard Freres & Company who were among the early investors in Edison Schools. On the group’s board of advisers are Thomas F. McLarty 3rd, the former chief of staff for President Clinton, and Lamar Alexander, the former governor of Tennessee.

Lamar Alexander, and his wife (Honey?) as I recall were also heavily into privatized prisons.  And Corporate Child Care, Inc. They might even be referenced on this blog.

See this information at “realchange.org” from when he was running for President.  It gives you the general idea of “inexplicable enrichment” which has little to do with “business acumen” and much more to do with “insider sweetheart deals.”  Whittle Communications (cf. Edison Schools, above?) is also mentioned.  What we’re talking about here is essentially — greed.

Insider Get Rich Schemes You’ve undoubtedly heard of Hillary Clinton’s amazing $100,000 commodities trading profit, and Clinton’s failed attempt to get rich in the Whitewater real estate development. Well, Lamar Alexander and his wife Honey put these measly efforts to shame with a string of at least 15 — that’s fifteen — sweetheart deals from political supporters and businesses that lobby the government. …

Just to give you one example, a newspaper chain sold Lamara stock option for $1. That’s one US dollar and no cents. When the chain was sold, he made $620,000. For details on many of his scandals, click here. The quick summary; when Lamar was elected governor, his net worth was $151,000. By 1991, when Bush appointed him secretary of Education, he had between $1.5 million and $3 million. (Candidates are only required to report general ranges of wealth.) Just since 1991, his net worth has grown to between $3 million and $6 million.Even worse, he often transferred these assets to his wife Honey, as if that made these deals any less sleazy.

….This is a long list, it has a cumulative impact I hope!  I’ve bolded references to “Whittle” as, above, the 1999  NYT article referencing EDMC’s founder’s involvement in Whittle’s Edison Schools.

(Brief review: above that, I had been looking at Minnesota School of Professional Psychology at Argosy University, as a connection to Paul Reitmann (in Grazzini-Rucki case, stating no abuse of the runaway girls had happened, Mom had brainwashed them…).  However, the field of psychology, and setting up of “Schools of Professional Psychology” is also central to the family court field, associations such as “AFCC” and in reality, to US history from at least 1900 forward (William James / Freud among the earliest “fathers” of the fields.  For Freud, psychoanalysis, that is).

Argosy Education Group based in Chicago (which ran the Argosy University campus) was purchased by Education Management Corporation (EDMC) of Pittsburgh, and EDMC had only been started up in the mid-1990s, as part of the rush towards investment in for-profit education, as described in “Investors See Room for Profit In the Demand for Education By EDWARD WYATT Published: November 4, 1999″….

While I’m here — the profit behind on-line education (including “trainings”) was not lost on those involved in shifting the family court system towards more and more required trainings (i.e., “Parent Education”), let alone those involved in the 1996 (year “PRWORA” welfare reform budget for the entire USA was passed by Congress, under President Clinton’s administration)…  Consider the marriage/relationship education providers…which the federal government (through HHS) ALSO invests in….  It was maybe a sign of those times….


Details of Lamar’s Inexplicable Enrichment (continued from “realchange.org” )

In Mexico, they have a crime called “inexplicable enrichment” for politicians who accumulate large sums of money that can’t be traced. Luckily for us, diligent work by the Memphis newspaper and Edward Pound and Hilary Stout of the Wall Street Journal have explained many of Lamar’s sources.

1. CCA company stock, $8,900 investment yields $142,000 after Governor Lamar helps the company get a $250 million state contract.

(Corrections Corporation of America — private prison system)

2. Corporate Child Care Inc. Jack Massey invested $2 million, and Lamar and Honey got a founder’s stake for $5000. Their stake’s value grew to $800,000 by 1991.
3. The Jack Massey School of Business paid Lamar $100,000 in 1988, and an undisclosed sum in 1987, to create a “leadership institute” there.
4. Jack Massey’s venture capital firm paid Lamar and Honey $44,000 in directors and consulting fees in 1988.
5. Lamar and 6 other investors (including Howard Baker) got a stock option in a newspaper firm for $1 each. He sold his share for $620,000.
6. Whittle Communications, a private education firm, “sold” Alexander stock for $10,000 but didn’t cash his check until years later, when they made a deal to sell part of the company for $185 million. Whittle then purchased the stock back from Honey for $330,000.
7. Lamar bought a house in Knoxville for $570,000 in 1990. He sold it a year later, right after being appointed U.S. Secretary of Education, for $977,500 — to Gerald Hogan, a top executive at Whittle Communications. Pretty much everywhere else in America, housing prices went down in 1991.
8. Whittle communications paid Lamar $125,000 in consulting fees in 1987 for help with a magazine that ultimately failed. (Lamar had credentials – he workedon his high school newspaper.)
9. Howard Baker’s law firm paid him nearly $400,000 in 1994, and $295,000 in 1995 for working “at counsel” (not directly for the firm): he was campaigning for President full time both years. The firm is a lobbying law firm that represents Martin Marietta, AT&T, US Tobacco, Federal Express and others.
10. Right after leaving the governorship, Lamar was appointed to the $150,000/year job of President of the University of Tennessee by the Board of Regents, many of whom he appointed while governor. Many employees said he didn’t show up much, or show much interest in the job.
11. While he was UT President, the university spent $65,000 for entertainment at Blackberry Farms. Honey Alexander owned a third of the resort, which she bought for $10,000.
12. While governor, Lamar tried to get a highway built straight to the door of Blackberry Farms, across land that he and his cronies owned. After newspaper stories about the conflict of interest, the plan was dropped.
13. In 1987, (the year Whittle paid him $125K as a consultant, and that he supposedly worked at Corporate Child Care), Alexander and his family took 6 months off and went to Australia. He wrote a book, for which he received $52,500, and wrote off $128,308 in expenses on his taxes for the adventure.
14. His federal disclosure form indicates he got preferential treatment from a Tennessee bank – two loans and a $212,500 mortgage at prime rate on a Hilton Head, South Carolina condo.
15. Lockheed Martin Corporation (the result of the Lockheed — Martin Marietta merger) paid him $93,000 in 1994 as a director. When the two companies merged, Lamar (who has no significant business experience) received a $236,000 bonus for his help. Meanwhile, 30,000 Lockheed employees are being laid off.


“Common Man Candidate”, Wall Street Journal, May 12, 1995 pA1
“The Man From Tennessee”, Lisa Schiffren, The American Spectator, September 1995 p33
“Tennessee Waltz”, Time Magazine, March 13, 1995 p80
“The Rich Rise of Lamar Alexander”, Doug Ireland, The Nation, April 17, 1995 p517
“Welfare Kings: Lamar Alexander’s Bonus”, William Hartung, The Nation, June 19, 1995 p873
“Play It Again, Lamar”, Arthur Jones, Financial World, August 29, 1995 p63
“Lots of Cash and Effort, Little Result”, New York Times, October 17, 1995 pA8

BACK TO SKELETON CLOSET Paid for by Real People For Real Change and not authorized by any candidate or candidate’s committee. Real People For Real Change is registered with the Federal Election Commission as a non-connected, independent political action committee.  (Page is dated 1998)

(last quote from “Investors See Room for Profit In the Demand for Education, the 1999 NYT article):

”We really like the post-secondary part of the education business,” Mr. Leeds said. He said he believed that schools providing professional training and certification — in business, law, psychology, even medicine — could be operated for-profit. If that training could take place over the Internet, serving students who cannot take time off from work or travel to a central campus, all the better, he said.

 Internet-based education, once in place, such a deal….

(This is from the Wiki on EDMC)

On September 21, 2009,[39] EDMC became a public company once again, raising $330 million ($364 million in 2016 dollars) on the NASDAQ while Goldman Sachs retained 40% ownership.[27][36][40][41]

(This is from the Wiki on Argosy University; it seems to have started with Michael Markovitz and the Illinois School of Professional Psychology…)

In the late 1970s, Michael Markovitz founded the Illinois School of Professional Psychology, which later changed its name to the American School of Professional Psychology. In 1976, Markovitz became the founding chairman of Argosy Education Group,[7][8] which acquired the University of Sarasota in 1992. The University of Sarasota was a business and education-focused school and was founded in 1969.[9][10] Six years later Argosy Education Group acquired the health profession training school the Medical Institute of Minnesota, which was established in 1961.[5][11]

In July 2001, Argosy Education Group was acquired by Education Management Corporation.[12][13] Two months later, Argosy Education Group brought together the American School of Professional Psychology, the Medical Institute of Minnesota, and the University of Sarasota under the Argosy University name.[5][6]

In 2012, the law school Western State University College of Law, which was founded in 1966 and originally acquired by Argosy in 2000, was renamed Western State College of Law at Argosy University.[14][15]

Curious about Michael Markovitz, I did the usual — searched his name.  Found a 1989 article in the Chicago Tribune about how he bought a hospital on Chicago’s West Side which would have otherwise remained closed — opening it as a mental health community in order to provide training for his Illinois School of Professional Psychology students (psychology is a practice.  People are obviously needed to practice on.  Often involves hospitals or clinics…).  The details in this one, very interesting:

Future Brightens for Closed Hospital Chicago Tribune, 12/8/1989, Jessica Siegel

 A West Side hospital, 1 of 11 closed in Chicago in recent years, is scheduled to reopen this April as a mental health facility, officials said Thursday.  Community residents and leaders say they welcome the jobs and services a resurrected Walther Memorial Hospital, which went bankrupt in 1987 after being $11.5 million in debt, will bring to the Humboldt Park area.

The bankrupt hospital was sold for $2 million this September, according to Thomas Raleigh, the estate trustee. Workers have already begun renovating the six-story, 170,000-square-foot building, which came complete with hospital equipment and furniture, down to the linens.

Here, it gets interesting — if I’m reading it right, sounds like Markovitz’s partner (in the purchase?) was found to have a criminal past; he was “the other partner”…. I’m not clear which part of the transaction this partnership is referring to, but what does that say, in addition to the overwhelming debt, about Mr. Markovitz?

In part because of concerns over obtaining financing, the hospital sale stalled last year after it was learned that one of the original partners had a criminal past.  After that partner withdrew from the project, Michael Markovitz, the partner with the psychology know-how and founder and owner of the Illinois School of Professional Psychology, 220 S. State St., was left in charge.  “Because of the problems that arose in regards to his background,“ the original partner is no longer involved with the hospital, Markovitz said Thursday from administrative offices in the former Walther building, 1116 N. Kedzie Ave.

Again, psychology is focused on behavioral change (often) and students need people with problems to practice upon.  That was the motivation in opening the hospital.

Markovitz said his objective in opening the hospital is to provide training for students at the private for-profit psychology school he founded 12 years ago.

Some of the 220 master`s and doctoral students who attend his Illinois School of Professional Psychology, which is accredited by the American Psychological Association, will train at the hospital for credit and experience.

The hospital, to be named University Hospital, will have 110 beds for pediatric, adolescent and adult psychiatric patients, including those who need treatment for substance abuse. Various kinds of counseling will be available at an out-patient clinic.

Dr. Daniel Faisel, a medical director from Argentina, will in charge and a bicultural hospital staff will focus on serving Hispanics, Markovitz said.

Next paragraphs discuss how community members on the board helps establish some community involvement in the hospital, then… and show that a deputy health commissioner under (former) Mayor Harold Washington, controversial for cronyism (this being Chicago!!) taught at Markovitz’s “ISPP.”

Other board members include Ron Mangum, former staff attorney at Northwestern University, and Maisha Bennett, who taught at Markovitz`s school. As deputy health commissioner under former Mayor Harold Washington, she became a controversial figure criticized for reportedly hiring personal friends

Finally, it mentions that he had to right for Medicaid funding for mental health — as the needs were served already in the community.  His focus on minority populations (Hispanic) helped get funding for half his patients.  And, sources of the financing:

After a tough fight for the necessary state-issued certificate of need, which was opposed by some area hospitals, Markovitz now faces a struggle for Medicaid funding from the Illinois Department of Public Aid.  State public aid officials have already contracted for all the Medicaid in-patient mental health care needed in that area for the next two years, according to Alana Reeves, chief of the department`s Bureau of Hospital Services.  But Markovitz says he hopes his focus on minority populations will allow him to obtain Medicaid funding for up to 50 percent of his patients under a special state funding program for experimental medical treatments.  Financing for the hospital, which will cost under $5 million, was provided by an estimated $2 million bank mortgage and separate investments offered to major league athletes through a venture capital company based in Washington D.C., according to Raleigh

In the above quotes, I combined a few shorter paragraphs and added emphases for purposes of this post.

Although it’s not identical, there seem to be parallels with Alliant International University with several campuses in California, one in Mexico? and others overseas.  As to Alliant International (see my recent posts on this blog — that still means, June 29, 2014 and earlier), I can connect that university to the Broken Courts Crowd, particularly California Protective Parents Association (CPPA / Ms. Valentine at al.) seem to like referring business about trauma-based things down to the “Institute against Violence and Trauma” which isn’t an entity.  Its actual fiscal agent is Alliant  — although related FVSAI (Family Violence and Sexual Assault Institute) — (Richard Geffner) IS a 501(c)3, in fact a Texas-jurisdiction, California location one.


Alliant International University CA 2014 990 51 $94,209,548.00 54-2110067
Alliant International University CA 2013 990 52 $98,280,621.00 54-2110067
Alliant International University CA 2012 990 54 $100,753,127.00 54-2110067


California School of Professional Psych (Dba Alliant International University) CA 2002 990 38 $64,970,053.00 94-1699659
California School of Professional Psych Dba Alliant International University CA 2003 990 39 $59,229,976.00 94-1699659
California School of Professional Psychology (Dba Alliant International University) CA 2003 990 43 $0.00 94-1699659

Written by Let's Get Honest|She Looks It Up

February 28, 2016 at 8:50 pm

Posted in 1996 TANF PRWORA (cat. added 11/2011)

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  1. […] Excerpts from: Credentialing and Schooling Psychologists (speaking of MN and the Grazzini-Rucki case) […]

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