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Posts Tagged ‘CENIC and its filings in California

CENIC!! (Corporation for Education Network Initiatives in California). And National LambdaRail + the New Owner of the Los Angeles Times: My 2019 {{~~ CENIC Notes and Updates.

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Published July 13, 2019, minor revs. July 14, (including correcting the typo in the title which called my 2019 updates my 2018 updates!).  Post title, with my update year now corrected: CENIC!! (Corporation for Education Network Initiatives in California). And National LambdaRail + the New Owner of the Los Angeles Times: My 2019 {{~~ CENIC Notes and Updates.  (case-sensitive short-link still ends “-aed”) (about 10,600 words)

As dramatic in scope and scale of operations as the subject matter here is, writing it up or developing the full plot outline and sequence is not my main priority this season, or on this blog. If I do write or reorganize more, it’s in the process of getting answers I myself would like about collective the bottom lines for customers of CENIC and similar networks which universities and research institutions already depend upon, including hospitals, and what it means for the future, including the future envisioned by some of the controlling personalities with whom CENIC has had to deal over the years. Otherwise I’d wait and finish major revisions, or a follow-up post.

Parts of this situation caught my attention a few years ago when I looked up an unknown (to me) browser name, discovered it was tied to a nonprofit tied to statewide, high-bandwidth, high-capacity communications — something every university, research scientist (in almost any field) and, as it turns out here, doctor with a patented potential cure for cancer, might want, and does.  (Point-of Delivery genetically individually targeted assessment and treatments).

People with actual leisure time and a mind (and the ability) to investigate could write it up in the style of (for example), Edward Jay Epstein’s “The Diamond Invention(<~on-line book: 22 chapters, prologue and endnotes; I’ve read it and posted on it in the context of the history of the Rhodes scholars/trust; chronology of Namibia, and too-close-for-comfort parallels between the administration of South African apartheid and intentions and policies in the current ‘Welfare Reform’ and Social Services scenarios today.) pulling the narrative together to show agents, actors, promoters, and of course time and place, further illuminating national and global governments in action until this day as pertains to the key subject matter.  Even in The Diamond Invention’s prologue paragraphs, I see parallels to the situation here, although diamonds aren’t drugs.

It’s a short prologue, he’s a good writer — check it out! ).  From that prologue:

In Japan, the matrimonial custom had survived feudal revolutions, world wars, industrialization and even the American occupation …. The ceremony was then consummated, according to Shinto law, by the bride and groom both drinking rice wine from the same wooden bowl. This simple arrangement had persisted for more than a millennium. There was no tradition for romance, courtship, seduction and prenuptial love in Japan; and no tradition that required the gift of a diamond engagement ring.

Then, in 1967, halfway around the world, a South African diamond company decided to change the Japanese courtship ritual. It retained J. Walter Thompson, the largest advertising agency in the world, to embark on a campaign to popularize diamond engagement rings in Japan. It was not an easy task. Even the quartering of millions of American soldiers in Japan for a decade had not resulted in any substantial Japanese interest in giving diamonds as a token of love.

The diamond company already had the product. It perceived an untapped mass market and getting there first, then maintaining control and value indefinitely, which required major persuasion of the popular mindset (at the consumer end), when as it says, quartering millions of American soldiers in Japan for a decade hadn’t.

After a few paragraphs describing the vastly successful results, the prologue assesses the accomplishment:

..The diamond invention was an ingenious scheme for sustaining the value of diamonds in an uncertain world. To begin with, it involved gaining control over the production of all the important diamond mines in the world. Next, a system was devised for allocating this controlled supply of gems to a select number of diamond cutters who all agreed to abide by certain rules intended to assure that the quantity of finished diamonds available at any given time never exceeded the public’s demand for them. Finally, a set of subtle, but effective, incentives were devised for regulating the behavior of all the people who served and ultimately profited from the system.

This example came to mind after writing this post and the most recent lookups (not all posted here yet), some are referenced though. I hadn’t realized at first that both originated, in different ways, in South Africa and with the vision of just a few dominant men intent on success as measured by their personal visions and willing to do whatever it took to get to that point, and maintain it.

HOW MUCH and WHAT ASPECTS of both Africa, Europe, and the USA today has been impacted by diamonds as signs of engagement and true love, whether or not they be ‘blood diamonds’ and regardless of what happened to the people in the mines?  Will we ever acknowledge that this was a scheme, or undue its effects? Has it just maybe affected politics and national economies?

The invention had a wide array of diverse parts: these included a huge stockpile of uncut diamonds in a vault in London; a billion-dollar cash hoard deposited in banks in Europe; and private intelligence network operating out of Antwerp, Tel Aviv, Johannesburg and London; a global network of advertising agencies, brokers and distributors; corporate fronts in Africa for concealing massive diamond purchases; and private treaties with nations establishing quotas for annual production.

The invention is far more than merely a monopoly for fixing diamond prices…

Different times, different products and infrastructure development, but still mega profits, and what seems to me, clear intent to monopolize them.  Here, it’s about research advances, and especially cures for cancer. Billions have already been made with a few proprietary drugs; those billions being invested to developing more AND keeping the money coming in through control of a high-speed, high-capacity (dark fibre?) network where others have failed.

Success builds upon success: here we can see intents to build health hubs in specific cities, a literal internet paradise metropolis (with multiple interlocking nonprofits by founders to keep taxes down).   As the timing here was leading up to 2010, I can only assume there was anticipation that the Affordable Health Care Act might contribute to the coffers.  However, even without it, control of the conduits and access to them guarantees ongoing revenues.

So I think this story could be written equally well as a nonfiction novel, covering about a 50 to 70-year timespan.  The events in this novel are occurring now, but who’s reading the screenplay?

CENIC Network overview (@2019July2). If the map looks unfamiliar (see state outlines), it may because California here is horizontal; in an upright (N/S) alignment it covers a good deal of the USA’s Pacific Coast. Guess it fit the blog page better horizontally! (Notice San Francisco left, Los Angeles, San Diego further right).//LGH

Post Title: CENIC!! (Corporation for Education Network Initiatives in California). And National LambdaRail + the New Owner of the Los Angeles Times. My 2019<~~ CENIC Notes and Updates. (shortlink ends “-aed”).  About 9,500 words on publishing.  Might be shortened post-publication with a spin-off post, but as the top of this one says, that also just might not be my calling at the moment.   (Post was originally published with a typo.  Said updates (additions) were as of this week ending Saturday July 13,  2019, not 2018!//LGH).

2011 Businesswire: Change of CENIC leadership.  Current CEO, Louis Fox, took the helm in 2012, succeeding a Jim Dolgonas (running CENIC since 2002), per this Dec, 2011 BusinessWire.  Think “Fibre-optic wire” (then, 3,000 miles, now closer to 8,000 miles):

New CEO for CENIC, California’s High-Performance Research and Education Network Corporation (Dec. 16, 2011, La Mirada, California).  Louis Fox to Lead Non-profit Corporation for Education Network Initiatives in California (CENIC) Serving Virtually All of the Golden State’s Public Education System

CENIC designs, implements, and operates CalREN, the California Research and Education Network, a high-bandwidth, high-capacity Internet network specially designed to meet the unique requirements of these communities. CalREN consists of a [then!-] 3,000-mile fiber-optic CENIC-operated backbone to which schools and other institutions in all 58 of California’s counties connect via leased circuits obtained from telecom carriers or via CENIC owned fiber-optic cable.

(There are many Louis Fox’s around; The CENIC CEO Louis Fox’s LinkedIn (#9716404) shows he’d spent about 23 years at the University of Washington in a variety of positions (increasingly more responsible), has a B.A. from Kenyon (Kenyon College is in Ohio) and  notations about (WU and) “Harvard” on the LinkedIn, but in what, not shown… (J. Ronald Fox at Harvard Business School) (<~just kidding, maybe a relative?)(probably much more current Louis Fox photo, at IeBroadband.com (apparently Oct. 2018, or upload that date). Even Bloomberg.com, (person profile #17502032), quite clear on his last three jobs, with big headings for “Career” “Education,” and “About” (CENIC, brief statement), lists the same three (well, one college and two universities) but the whole “Degrees” column is blank.

I don’t see any “Dr.” address throughout, so I’m going to assume that the highest level of graduate education Mr. (Louis) Fox MIGHT have reached would be a masters’ degree.  I hope that working 23 years in increasingly responsible positions (so it seems) at  major university in Seattle might require at least some proof of academia beyond a 4-year bachelor’s degree with no specific major (i.e., B.A. not B.S. or such)…

Right before CENIC he was simultaneously on PacificNorthwest GigaPOP (also a nonprofit, doesn’t post its financials), clearly international, and simultaneously (Mr. Fox was working for) what sounds like a US-based “JPA” | WICHE (Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, a trans-state governmental higher-education authority, like ‘WestEd’ I’ve blogged (this blog) earlier, particularly because its CAFRs are basically, hidden (if there are any being produced). WICHE operates as a nonprofit, lists is HQ as in Boulder, Colorado, includes both states and territories, has been around since 1953 (administering an education compact of the 1950s), and like the others, doesn’t post its financials, or any clear link to them, on a very informative and busy, brightly-formatted (black, white and blue mostly) website. It started at first in Eugene Oregon:

…WICHE began operations in 1953 in Eugene, OR, moving to its present location in Boulder, CO, in 1955. WICHE is governed by three gubernatorially appointed commissioners from each member. Under terms of the compact, each member commits to support WICHE’s basic operations through annual dues established by the full commission.

WICHE’s members include 15 Western states and member U.S. Pacific Territories and Freely Associated States (which currently include the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and Guam).

(Next three images pertain to LinkedIn Louis Fox,  but not WICHE I was also interested to see among PacificNorthwestGigaPOP’s Members, top of the list was EDUCAUSE which (I kid you not) was on my “To-Do” list, some of which is reflected on which windows I choose to keep open (see image gallery, showing some of my (alpha arranged by default) open browser windows, although none of the “NOYB” sort…).

CalREN is the product, CENIC operates it.  CENIC is California only, what about interstate and international? What about networks in other states?  There’s a definite story line here.

I’ve been cleaning up blog formats, and in the process, saw a full post of material on CENIC published, but submerged, as a sort of footnote to a Table of Contents page.  It seemed like its own topic, and “CENIC!!” a natural title.   A look through my saved files on this situation shows the interest went back to about January 2017, getting more serious in Sept. 2017, although it was obviously not the primary topic of this blog.

The bottom half (approximate) of this post, except any footnote, is what I understood on an initial drill-down, as originally published on my 2017 Table of Contents post (completed in early 2018), still one of the top sticky posts on the blog. (There are nine total: It’s ninth from the top, 2017 Table of Contents Continues Themes From 2016. (case-sensitive short-link ending “-5qz”. Until I publish again, it’s the one right above this post on “Current Posts” page.)

The top half (approximate) here holds my updates made while moving the earlier material.  It’s a fascinating topic. I decided to share it (and take a break from blog administrative cleanup). There’s some repetition between top and bottom halves of the post and I’ve not re-arranged it as one piece with a timeline of news articles and key events by key players, though while reading I keep the general timeframe as attached to individual or entities A, B, or C in mind (a good practice in any reading; wish more people did this when it came to problem-solving the family courts, domestic violence and child abuse issues and causes).

Sept. 3, 2019 Interjection:  “TWO HELPFUL LINKS” (Immediately below, I’m adding this mini-section of TableOfContents, 2019 and 2018 text+html+one image (from blog sidebar, near top) to some (not all) posts earlier in 2019, perhaps a few in 2018, after setting it up recently. If for some reason any link to a 2019 TOC goes to 2018 instead, substitute the correct final 3 characters (“-ayV”) as shown below.  As first copied, both links were the same.. I’ve tried to catch all corrections of the few (under a dozen) inserts I’ve made…

re: ‘TWO HELPFUL LINKS’ — Image from TopRightSidebar, ‘GO TO POSTS’ widget, shows TOC 2019 & 2018 + ‘Key Posts 2012-2017’ (LGH, @ Sept. 1, 2019)

TWO HELPFUL LINKS added Sept. 1, 2019 (for recent subject matter overview):

 Table of Contents 2019, Family Court Matters’ Posts + Pages: January 1 – October 31 (so far). (Shortlink ends “-ayV.”  About 6,300 words,posted August 5, updated Aug. 31) (You can also link to this TOC post any time from the top right sidebar, under”GO TO: All Posts, incl. Sticky, Tables of Contents..” widget, which holds several boxes for navigating to specific important places (posts or pages, incl. the home page), and, 

(Table of Contents 2018, Posts and Pages.. (publ. 24Mar2019, short-link ends ‘9y7’)

(2019 TOC Is now through October 31, 2019, as shown on the link (not the image) and about to be updated through Nov.  The blog right sidebar will show most recent version of TOC 2019, post with shortlink ending “-ayV”)

CENIC had captured my attention back then as:

(1) a private nonprofit providing critical communications infrastructure for all levels (K-12 and universities, including some private and all? public ones in the state) and

(2) holding a strategically powerful position (“Connecting California to the World..” and interconnectivity among research institutions and universities within California: this state has several of famous ones, AND the public school systems K-12).

(3) I’d looked at the tax returns and, it being a California entity, its Charitable Registry annual filings, and quickly noticed failure to follow basic instructions and what appeared to be jacking up the access prices.

It’s obvious that when public institutions pay membership/access fees, the public is footing the bill, but probably unaware how unless actually involved.  CENIC as a nonprofit controlled access to the network and its tax returns (see below) entailed some subsidiary (reported “Schedule-R” related organizations) one of which was “National LambdaRail” whether as an LLC or in acronym (NLR).  etc.

As part of the communications infrastructure, it’s also part of the economic infrastructure of the country (and global communications).  For CENIC’s “CalREN” (Research Education Network) no doubt there are others.  (membership of “NLR” shows in its Wiki, below). The history of the fibre-optics network and “the need for speed” (and high-capacity info-crunching) comes with an economic corporate history also, and is an essential part of the 21st and last half of the 20th century.

[Considered explaining this further; decided “not here.”  “Stay tuned…”]

Meanwhile men and women like myself have at times struggled to even retain access to slow-speed internet access, and at times, even a functional telephone or cell phone (and by “like myself” I mean those whose income depletion stretches over a decade or more in the family courts, especially those dealing with prior or current domestic violence (or should I call it “coercive control” and not violence or abuse?) issues, including stalking). Read the rest of this entry »

Size Still Matters — So, How to Assess Who’s Got the Biggest (Most) Assets, Where Are They Stored, Who Manages the Most of OTHERs’ Assets (AUM), How Much are Americans Bankrolling Both, or Should We Be Measuring Something Else? [Started 8/24, Published 10/8/2017.]

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Post title: Size Still Matters — So, Who’s Got the Biggest (Most) Assets, Who Manages the Most of OTHERs’ Assets (AUM), How Much are Americans Bankrolling Both, or Should We Be Measuring Something Else, like Donations? [Started 8/24, Published 10/8/2017]  (case-sensitive short-link ends “-7up”)

This short, informative, and I admit at times flippant post still makes its points about distinguishing size of entities and ones that seek to present themselves as smaller (or larger) than they actually are. I also was going through some of the definitions of “syndicate” in reference to topics I was more focused on in August, 2017 (Tobacco-RICO-related), than I have been in September 2017. Those comments are on: Basic Definitions and Etymology (Roots) of the word ~syndicate. Syndicates can be formed for legal OR illegal purposes. Know the Difference! (8/26/2017, published Oct. 3) [short-link ends “-7vi”]

Still, with persistence, I find that topics covered in one context tend to come up in others, too. Some of these revelations (to me at least) continue to astound as to the casual tossing around of millions, or sometimes billions, of dollars from a given entity towards the cause, and from there to subcontractors, grantees, while being retained — or lost — as reflected on the corresponding huge and sometimes rapidly fluctuating, but always illuminating balance sheets of each entity.

Take for example the American Legacy Foundation later renamed “Truth Initiative Foundation(™).”

The post title, and this post, came from my feeling I should qualify the statement that the American Legacy Foundation (total gross assets around one billion, only formed in 1999, too) as being “monster-sized.”  Obviously, with Robert Wood Johnson Foundation being ten times its size (and involved in some of the same projects) — or a center under the CDC which involved a tobacco-cessation nonprofit I was writing about (because it was among the USDOJ Intervenors in the RICO Case against Phillip Morris et. al…) which referenced this nonprofit — that center’s 2016 budget was $1.17 Billion, I learned — size is still “all relative” (only meaningful in comparison to other entities or some outside standard).  (where it started, ca. August 29, 2017)

After publishing the post, on reviewing it more, I saw and decided to label its three basic sections, which may help people understand why those particular organizations.  American Legacy Foundation (first section) relates to the ongoing recent blog themes re: big tobacco litigations as it intersects with HHS and agencies under it.  The second and third sections below are:

  • 2nd section: CENIC (Corp. for Educ. Network in Calif.) & CITY OF HOPE
    • For non-Californians:  other states surely have parallel organizations, and City of Hope typifies what comprises a major healthcare operation, with its component parts as shown on their financial statements.  The takeaway here is, ALWAYS check for tax returns, but realize because of the networking, individual tax returns are rarely the whole story.
  • 3rd section: Forbes’ 50 Largest Foundations 2016 and its #2 Charity: The Task Force for Global Health & Related /Similar Orgs. associated w/ Emory University in Georgia.
    • Take-away here includes the tendency of organizations that get big — often from public funds but not always — to form spinoff entities in later years, often on the exact same website.
    • Emory University anchoring both Task Force for Global Health and (see that section) the famous “Carter Center” (named after former President Jimmy Carter and his wife) in effect clouds the types of in-kind medication donations, and in the latter case, millions every year targeted specifically to sub-Saharan Africa through the spin-off entity.
    • Not reported here — but I will post: I found through looking at board members, another small but still “iffy” set of nonprofits run by an Emory University business (not Public Health) professor. From what the tax returns are telling me, this is a legitimate professor using tax-exemption for illegitimate purposes (i.e., simply paying less taxes, write-offs, etc.).  That’s not what academic privileges are for, and has me even more curious about what else is going on in Georgia, and at this institution.
    • Organizations also tend to copy each other’s behavior.

I believe all the topics are interesting in their own right, but as usual and as ever, am still promoting individual initiatives to look up and look at foundations, charities, and of course the direction of government programming (especially under HHS) over time. I found that even turning away for just a period — a year, a half year, two years — major developments that are NOT typically referenced in the mainstream media, OR the “alternate” media supposedly correcting mainstream (“alt-right” or “far left,” “progressive”), although once you start looking some of the big ones up, the connection to MSM and headline news will become more and more regular.


American Legacy Foundation funds as I recall came from the MSA Tobacco Litigation settlements, a process which had been driven by some of the organizations mentioned in the (see next link) post, which in part was also pushing for major HHS/NIH (Nat’l Institutes of Health) expansion especially for biomedical research, also for cancer.

My August 5, 2017 post (ca 15,500 words) has many details, images and documentations.  I was studying some of the background of key organizations and of the related (driven by some of the same major players in this field) NIH funding expansions…because Congress appropriates the HHS (NIH is under HHS) funds, when I say “driven by,” I’m talking here about the ability of well-connected people and their well-funded organizations to influence Congress and specifically here regarding smoking cessation efforts on the basis of smoking causing cancer.

An Alternate Viewpoint on the Anti-Smoking / Smoking Causes Cancer! Campaign and its Syndicated (?) Backers incl. the Whiteheads, the Laskers, the NIH and the U.S. Congress (from SmokersHistory.com and Other Sources. See also Tobacco Lawsuits and 1998 MSA Settlement Funds ~~} American Legacy Foundation, now the so-called Truth Initiative®) (post started 7/31, published 8/5/2017) with case-sensitive short-link ending “-7na” 

(Check out the closing paragraphs on the “Alternate Viewpoint” post…)

For a general “size” point of reference, I showed that back in 2002, the “ALF” managed to lose $35M by selling over $8B of securities — but then again, it also earned $54M** $16M from dividends and interest the same year.  Then again, it spent $91.7M on “Other expenses” per its tax returns, of which (says the Form 990 detail) most ($87M) went to “Contract Services”.”  The other major chunk of expenses that year were $32M of grants, the delegation of most ($27M) of them being presented at least as uploaded to the databse which gets them from the IRS, in virtually illegible form.  Of another $4.2M (of those $32M) grants under the “sponsorship” category, the largest chunk went, unsurprisingly given the subject matter, straight to UCSF ($3.3M as I recall). Here’s that tax return, all of it, in pdf format:

American Legacy Fndtn (Tobacco MSA grants est 1998) FY2002 Sold 8’5B investmts at a 53M Loss (!!) 911956621_200306_990 (all pp, ptd 7-30-2017)

**correction — double-checking the $54M quote, I see that referred to “unrealized gains” part of the return, not shown on Page 1 summary.  This would’ve been shown in the financial statements.  On the other hand, $54M of the $91M (“Other expenses) that year was shown going to a single contractor in Boston “Arnold Communications.”

Three images from within the FY2002 return and one from FY2003 showing a $46.8M gain from sale of securities..  Which securities, one wonders!  Who is donating $8B worth of securities over such a short period (or possibly even within a single year).


ALF 2002 details some of the “sponsorship” grants — showing ca. ¾ ($3.3M of $4.2M) went to UCSF.

ALF FY2002 detail from a listing of $27M grants to others had been shrunk to below visibility, in explicably… and the entity is at this point only a few years old…

ALF FY2002, $87M in “Contract Services” is major “Other Expense” of $91M total.

American Legacy Fndtn FY2003, prior yr lost $35M selling over 8B assets; this year somehow they profited $46M. Where that many assets came from, I still don’t see reflected on tax returns.


The numbers we are dealing with over time are, by a normal person’s standards (supporting self, family, maybe contribution to charities, or saving for retirement, helping/hoping to send children to a decent college) are phenomenal — millions, hundreds of millions (regularly) and billions.  Plural.

But within these there are still degrees of relative size, there are types of donations (for example, in one example below — actually two — among the $100M+donations (or close to it some years) of donations, were in-kind donations of drugs, medications and related inventories for use in, (Carter Center Collaborative, Inc.) primarily sub-Saharan Africa.

Another issue that came up as I looked for some of the “50 largest foundations” on different lists, besides how they were categorized, is what are actually membership dues (contributions, technically speaking) are classified on the Form 990s as “Program service Revenues” in one place, and contributions (same organization) in another.  Also, in looking for “the largest” for some list — for example, Forbes had one — this often doesn’t take into account related organizations, which consideration of the tax returns would quickly show.

Here’s “American Legacy Foundation” (“Truth Initiative”) tax returns from that post:

American Legacy Foundation DC 2016 990 65 $957,381,718.00 91-1956621
American Legacy Foundation DC 2015 990 92 $1,096,789,302.00 91-1956621
American Legacy Foundation DC 2014 990 97 $1,151,506,314.00 91-1956621

It’s hovering around $1B assets (Gross) now — but it had its hands on much more a dozen-plus years ago.  See also my post published 8/19/2017 (continuation of this one) which may have more detail.  I looked at this again recently, took more “screenprints” and am considering posting a separate page just on that year’s return, to emphasize — what’s really going on there?  Why should the public be funding such an operation?
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2017 Table of Contents Continues Themes From 2016. See TOC for: (1) 2017 now thru Sept. 21; (2) 2016 All; and (3) Sept. 2012 – June 2014, Reverse Chrono, and (4) See Also More Info Below. [Published Jan. 9 2017, last updated July 1, 2019] [Shortlink ends ‘-5qZ’]

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This post presents three different ways to view three different time spans’s tables of contents.  I had previously posted for two of those time spans, but never in page-sized (8X11) format for viewing or printing.  This post pulls it all together and put the links in one place to older tables of contents direct from here (in 8X11) or directly on their original posts (links to those posts).

POST TITLE: 2017 Table of Contents Continues Themes From 2016. See TOC for: (1) 2017 now thru Sept. 21; (2) 2016 All; and (3) Sept. 2012 – June 2014, Reverse Chrono, and (4) See Also More Info Below. [Published Jan. 9 2017, last updated July 1, 2019]. (case-sensitive, WordPress-generated shortlink-ends 5qZ, first published Jan. 9, 2017, second half of post title and substantial updates added in late September, 2017).  About 9,000 words.

Terrible title.  But, here you have:

Tables of Contents for:

  • 2017 (most) 
  • 2016 (all)
  • 2015 none (I published not one post that year for personal reasons).
  • 2012-2014 (some),** and
  • significant “Value-Added” content, the  (4) See Also More Info Below referenced in the title.***

**I got as far back as about Sept. 21, 2012, and after June 29, 2014, I stopped blogging, again, for personal reasons, basic limitations on one person’s waking hours.

For posts before about Sept 21 or 24, 2012 (i.e., March 2009 – 2010-2011 & almost ¾ of 2012), you must use Archives function by month or search individually if you’re aware of a post title or keywords…Earlier posts are in rougher format (I am a self-taught blogger and there is a technical, not just subject matter, learning curve!) but I believe the basic principles reported that far back still apply. While writing on new material, I sometimes still have occasion to quote from the earliest posts of this blog, sometimes even re-formatting them for better viewing (if I’m going to add a link to a current blog), etc.

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